Heterogeneity in chronic migraine (CM) presents significant challenge for diagnosis, management, and clinical trials. To explore naturally occurring clusters of CM, we utilized data reduction methods on migraine-related clinical dataset. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering and principal component analyses (PCA) were conducted to identify natural clusters in 100 CM patients using 14 migraine-related clinical variables. Three major clusters were identified. Cluster I (29 patients) - the severely impacted patient featured highest levels of depression and migraine-related disability. Cluster II (28 patients) - the minimally impacted patient exhibited highest levels of self-efficacy and exercise. Cluster III (43 patients) - the moderately impacted patient showed features ranging between Cluster I and II. The first 5 principal components (PC) of the PCA explained 65% of variability. The first PC (eigenvalue 4.2) showed one major pattern of clinical features positively loaded by migraine-related disability, depression, poor sleep quality, somatic symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder, being overweight and negatively loaded by pain self-efficacy and exercise levels. CM patients can be classified into three naturally-occurring clusters. Patients with high self-efficacy and exercise levels had lower migraine-related disability, depression, sleep quality, and somatic symptoms. These results may ultimately inform different management strategies.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-59738-1
View details for PubMedID 32071349