A generalizable 29-mRNA neural-network classifier for acute bacterial and viral infections. Nature communications Mayhew, M. B., Buturovic, L., Luethy, R., Midic, U., Moore, A. R., Roque, J. A., Shaller, B. D., Asuni, T., Rawling, D., Remmel, M., Choi, K., Wacker, J., Khatri, P., Rogers, A. J., Sweeney, T. E. 2020; 11 (1): 1177


Improved identification of bacterial and viral infections would reduce morbidity from sepsis, reduce antibiotic overuse, and lower healthcare costs. Here, we develop a generalizable host-gene-expression-based classifier for acute bacterial and viral infections. We use training data (N=1069) from 18 retrospective transcriptomic studies. Using only 29 preselected host mRNAs, we train a neural-network classifier with a bacterial-vs-other area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.92 (95% CI 0.90-0.93) and a viral-vs-other AUROC 0.92 (95% CI 0.90-0.93). We then apply this classifier, inflammatix-bacterial-viral-noninfected-version 1(IMX-BVN-1), without retraining, to an independent cohort (N=163). In this cohort, IMX-BVN-1 AUROCs are: bacterial-vs.-other 0.86 (95% CI 0.77-0.93), and viral-vs.-other 0.85 (95% CI 0.76-0.93). In patients enrolled within 36h of hospital admission (N=70), IMX-BVN-1 AUROCs are: bacterial-vs.-other 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-0.99), and viral-vs.-other 0.91 (95% CI 0.82-0.98). With further study, IMX-BVN-1 could provide a tool for assessing patients with suspected infection and sepsis at hospital admission.

View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-020-14975-w

View details for PubMedID 32132525