External approaches to the frontal sinus such as osteoplastic flaps are challenging because they require blind entry into the sinus, posing risks of injury to the brain or orbit. Intraoperative computed tomography (CT)-based navigation is the current standard for planning the approach, but still necessitates blind entry into the sinus. The aim of this work was to describe a novel technique for external approaches to the frontal sinus using a holographic augmented reality (AR) application.Our team developed an AR system to create a 3-dimensional (3D) hologram of key anatomical structures, based on CT scans images. Using Magic Leap AR goggles for visualization, the frontal sinus hologram was aligned to the surface anatomy in 6 fresh cadaveric heads' anatomic boundaries, and the boundaries of the frontal sinus were demarcated based on the margins of the fused image. Trephinations and osteoplastic flap approaches were performed. The specimens were re-scanned to assess the accuracy of the osteotomy with respect to the actual frontal sinus perimeter.Registration and surgery were completed successfully in all specimens. Registration required an average of 2 minutes. The postprocedure CT showed a mean difference of 1.4 ± 4.1 mm between the contour of the osteotomy and the contour of the frontal sinus. One surgical complication (posterior table perforation) occurred (16%).We describe proof of concept of a novel technique utilizing AR to enhance external approaches to the frontal sinus. Holographic AR-enhanced surgical navigation holds promise for enhanced visualization of target structures during surgical approaches to the sinuses.
View details for DOI 10.1002/alr.22546
View details for PubMedID 32362076