Mediators of the effects of canagliflozin on kidney protection in patients with type 2 diabetes. Kidney international Li, J. n., Neal, B. n., Perkovic, V. n., de Zeeuw, D. n., Neuen, B. L., Arnott, C. n., Simpson, R. n., Oh, R. n., Mahaffey, K. W., Heerspink, H. J. 2020


Canagliflozin reduced kidney disease progression in participants with type 2 diabetes in the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program that explored potential mediators of the effects of canagliflozin on kidney outcomes. The percent mediating effect of 18 biomarkers indicative of disease was determined by comparing the hazard ratios for the effect of randomized treatment from an unadjusted model and from a model adjusting for the average post-randomization level of each biomarker. Multivariable analyses assessed the joint effects of biomarkers that mediated most strongly in univariable analyses. The kidney outcome was defined as a composite of 40% estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, end-stage kidney disease, or death due to kidney disease. Nine biomarkers (systolic blood pressure [8.9% of effect explained], urinary albumin:creatinine ratio [UACR; 23.9%], gamma glutamyltransferase [4.1%], hematocrit [51.1%], hemoglobin [41.3%], serum albumin [19.5%], erythrocytes [56.7%], serum urate [35.4%], and urine pH [7.5%]) individually mediated the effect of canagliflozin on the kidney outcome. In a parsimonious multivariable model, erythrocyte concentration, serum urate, and systolic blood pressure maximized cumulative mediation (115%). Mediating effects of UACR, but not other mediators, were highly dependent upon the baseline level of UACR: UACR mediated 42% and 7% of the effect in those with baseline UACR 30 mg/g or more and under 30 mg/g, respectively. The identified mediators support existing hypothesized mechanisms for the prevention of kidney outcomes with sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. Thus, the disparity in mediating effects across baseline UACR subgroups suggests that the mechanism for kidney protection with canagliflozin may vary across patient subgroups.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.kint.2020.04.051

View details for PubMedID 32470492