Electrophysiological mapping of chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) at high throughput and high resolution is critical for understanding its underlying mechanism and guiding definitive treatment such as cardiac ablation, but current electrophysiological tools are limited by either low spatial resolution or electromechanical uncoupling of the beating heart. To overcome this limitation, we herein introduce a scalable method for fabricating a tissue-like, high-density, fully elastic electrode (elastrode) array capable of achieving real-time, stable, cellular level-resolution electrophysiological mapping in vivo. Testing with acute rabbit and porcine models, the device is proven to have robust and intimate tissue coupling while maintaining its chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties during the cardiac cycle. The elastrode array records epicardial atrial signals with comparable efficacy to currently available endocardial-mapping techniques but with 2 times higher atrial-to-ventricular signal ratio and >100 times higher spatial resolution and can reliably identify electrical local heterogeneity within an area of simultaneously identified rotor-like electrical patterns in a porcine model of chronic AF.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2000207117
View details for PubMedID 32541030