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INTRODUCTION: Perioperative pain may have deleterious effects for all patients. We aim to examine disparities in pain management for children in the perioperative period to understand whether any racial and ethnic groups are at increased risk of poor pain control.METHODS: Medical records from children =18years of age who underwent surgery from May 2014 to May 2018 were reviewed. The primary outcome was total intraoperative morphine equivalents. The secondary outcomes were intraoperative non-opioid analgesic administration and first conscious pain score. The exposure was race and ethnicity. The associations of race and ethnicity with outcomes of interest were modeled using linear or logistic regression, adjusted for preselected confounders and covariates. Bonferroni corrections were made for multiple comparisons.RESULTS: A total of 21,229 anesthetics were included in analyses. In the adjusted analysis, no racial and ethnic group received significantly more or less opioids intraoperatively than non-Hispanic (NH) whites. Asians, Hispanics, and Pacific Islanders were estimated to have significantly lower odds of receiving non-opioid analgesics than NH whites: odds ratio (OR)=0.83 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70, 0.97); OR=0.84 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.97), and OR=0.53 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.84) respectively. Asians were estimated to have significantly lower odds of reporting moderate-to-severe pain on awakening than NH whites: OR=0.80 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.99).CONCLUSIONS: Although children of all races and ethnicities investigated received similar total intraoperative opioid doses, some were less likely to receive non-opioid analgesics intraoperatively. Asians were less likely to report moderate-severe pain upon awakening. Further investigation may delineate how these differences lead to disparate patient outcomes and are influenced by patient, provider, and system factors.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s40615-020-00811-w
View details for PubMedID 32621098