Surgical strategies and choosing levels for spinal deformity: how high, how low, front and back. Neurosurgery clinics of North America Mok, J. M., Hu, S. S. 2007; 18 (2): 329-37


The purpose of this article is to describe general strategies in the surgical treatment of adolescent and adult scoliosis, including radiographic evaluation, curve selection, principles guiding the selection of the upper and lower instrumented vertebrae, and indications for anterior surgery. Sagittal plane deformity, including Scheuermann's kyphosis, is discussed. Avoidance and treatment of postoperative flatback deformity is also briefly mentioned. There are multiple and sometimes conflicting considerations that must be reviewed when planning surgical stabilization of spinal deformity. Although there may be significant variation in surgeon decision making, careful adherence to primary principles, such as achieving coronal and sagittal balance in all patients and minimizing fusion levels, particularly in young patients, should be of paramount importance.

View details for DOI 10.1016/

View details for PubMedID 17556135