To evaluate whether the lack of diversity in plastic and orthopedic surgery persists into hand surgery through assessment of trainee demographics.Demographic data were obtained from compilations on graduate medical education by the Journal of the American Medical Association. Ethnic diversity was assessed using the proportions of minority trainees. We analyzed the trends in ethnic diversity in hand, orthopedic, and plastic surgery from 1995 to 2012 by evaluating changes in proportions of African American, Hispanic, and Asian trainees. In addition, we compared the proportions of minority trainees in various surgical specialties during 2009 to 2012. Trends in gender diversity were similarly analyzed using the proportions of female trainees.During 1995 to 2012, the proportions of minority and female trainees increased significantly in the fields of orthopedic, plastic, and hand surgery. To assess the current state of diversity in various specialties, we compared minority and female population proportions using pooled 2009 to 2012 data. The percentage of non-Caucasian trainees in hand surgery was significantly higher than that in orthopedic sports medicine and orthopedic surgery and significantly lower than in general surgery. The percentage of female trainees in hand surgery was significantly higher than that in orthopedic sports medicine and orthopedic surgery and significantly lower than in plastic and general surgery.Ethnic and gender diversity in hand surgery increased significantly between 1995 and 2012. Women constitute a fifth of hand surgery trainees. Efforts to increase diversity should be further pursued using proven strategies and innovating new ones.Diversity in the medical field has shown to be a beneficial factor in many aspects including research productivity and patient care. Understanding how the field of hand surgery has changed with regard to the diversity of its trainees may aid in providing more equitable and effective health care.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2014.10.065
View details for Web of Science ID 000352521000024
View details for PubMedID 25639841