Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in ischemia and shows potential as a biomarker for ischemia. We measured mixed venous nitrite (NO2-) as a proxy for NO, during controlled cerebral ischemia in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) during direct extracranial/intracranial (EC/IC) bypass surgery with temporary occlusion of the M4 branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) to permit anastomosis with the superficial temporal artery (STA). This small, focal ischemic event is not reliably detected using cerebral oximetry, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) or electroencephalography (EEG).We enrolled nine adult MMD patients (n=8 female, n=1 male) undergoing direct EC/IC bypass surgery. Nitrite was measured at least one hour prior to MCA occlusion, and before, during and after anastomosis. Cortical function was monitored using either multi-lead EEG and SSEPs, or frontal EEG activity.Mixed venous NO2- was significantly elevated (p<0.05) within 12 min following arterial occlusion vs. baseline. An M4 branch of the MCA was cross clamped for a median duration of 18 (IQR?=?5) minutes during anastomosis. One patient with elevated NO2- showed a transient neurologic deficit that resolved 3 days post-operatively.Mixed venous NO2- was significantly elevated shortly following cerebral artery occlusion vs. baseline in a majority of the study subjects, suggesting that NO2- is a potential biomarker for ischemia. Since all patients received identical burst suppression anesthesia and vasopressors, the fact that NO2- was not elevated during cross-clamp in all patients supports the conclusion that the NO2- elevation is likely due to ischemia.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104830
View details for PubMedID 32807407