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OBJECTIVE: To compare (1) the reoperation rates, (2) risk factors for reoperation, (3) 30-day complication rates, and (4) cost differences between autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) of the knee in a large insurance database.DESIGN: Subjects who underwent knee ACI (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT] code 27412) or OCA (CPT code 27415) with minimum 2-year follow-up were queried from a national insurance database. Reoperation was defined by ipsilateral knee procedure after index surgery. Multivariate logistic regression models were built to determine the effect of independent variables (age, sex, tobacco use, obesity, diabetes, and concomitant osteotomy) on reoperation rates. The 30-day complication rates were assessed using ICD-9-CM codes. The cost of the procedures per patient was calculated. Statistical comparisons were made. All P values were reported with significance set at P < 0.05.RESULTS: A total of 909 subjects (315 ACI and 594 OCA) were included (mean follow-up 39.2 months). There was a significantly higher reoperation rate after index ACI compared with OCA (67.6% vs. 40.4%, P < 0.0001). Concomitant osteotomy at the time of index procedure significantly reduced the risk for reoperation in both groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.2, P < 0.0001 and OR 0.2, P = 0.009). The complication rates were similar between ACI (1.6%) and OCA (1.2%) groups (P = 0.24). Day of surgery payments were significantly higher after ACI compared with OCA (P = 0.013).CONCLUSIONS: Autologous chondrocyte implantation had significantly higher reoperation rates and cost with similar complication rates compared with OCA. Concomitant osteotomy significantly reduced the risk for reoperation in both groups.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1947603520967065
View details for PubMedID 33106002