Glioblastoma (GBM) is a poorly immunogenic neoplasm treated with focused radiation. Immunotherapy has demonstrated synergistic survival effects with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in murine GBM. GITR is a co-stimulatory molecule expressed constitutively on regulatory T-cells and by effector T-cells upon activation. We tested the hypothesis that anti-GITR monoclonal antibody (mAb) and SRS together would confer an immune-mediated survival benefit in glioma using the orthotopic GL261 glioma model.Mice received SRS and anti-GITR 10 days after implantation. The anti-GITR mAbs tested were formatted as mouse IgG1 D265A (anti-GITR (1)) and IgG2a (anti-GITR (2a)) isotypes. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups: (1) control; (2) SRS; (3) anti-GITR; (4) anti-GITR/SRS. SRS was delivered to the tumor in one fraction, and mice were treated with mAb thrice. Mice were euthanized on day 21 to analyze the immunologic profile of tumor, spleen, and tumor draining lymph nodes.Anti-GITR (1)/SRS significantly improved survival over either treatment alone (p?
View details for DOI 10.1186/s40425-016-0132-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000376767800002
View details for PubMedID 27190629
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4869343