Force-Time Waveform Shape Reveals Countermovement Jump Strategies of Collegiate Athletes. Sports (Basel, Switzerland) Guess, T. M., Gray, A. D., Willis, B. W., Guess, M. M., Sherman, S. L., Chapman, D. W., Mann, J. B. 2020; 8 (12)


The purpose of this study was to relate the shape of countermovement jump (CMJ) vertical ground reaction force waveforms to discrete parameters and determine if waveform shape could enhance CMJ analysis. Vertical ground reaction forces during CMJs were collected for 394 male and female collegiate athletes competing at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 and National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) levels. Jump parameters were calculated for each athlete and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on normalized force-time waveforms consisting of the eccentric braking and concentric phases. A K-means clustering of PCA scores placed athletes into three groups based on their waveform shape. The overall average waveforms of all athletes in each cluster produced three distinct vertical ground reaction force waveform patterns. There were significant differences across clusters for all calculated jump parameters. Athletes with a rounded single hump shape jumped highest and quickest. Athletes with a plateau at the transition between the eccentric braking and concentric phase (amortization) followed by a peak in force near the end of the concentric phase had the lowest jump height and slowest jump time. Analysis of force-time waveform shape can identify differences in CMJ strategies in collegiate athletes.

View details for DOI 10.3390/sports8120159

View details for PubMedID 33276573