Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a spectrum of heterogeneous lymphoproliferative conditions that are serious and possibly fatal complications after solid organ or allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Most PTLD are attributed to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in B-cells in the setting of immunosuppression after transplantation. Early diagnosis, accurate staging, and timely treatment are of vital importance to reduce morbidity and mortality. Given the often nonspecific clinical presentation and disease heterogeneity of PTLD, tissue biopsy and histopathological analysis are essential to establish diagnosis and most importantly, determine the subtype of PTLD, which guides treatment options. Advanced imaging modalities such as 18F-FDG PET/CT have played an increasingly important role and have shown high sensitivity and specificity in detection, staging, and assessing treatment response in multiple clinical studies over the last two decades. However, larger multicenter prospective validation is still needed to further establish the clinical utility of PET imaging in the management of PTLD. Significantly, new hybrid imaging modalities such as PET/MR may help reduce radiation exposure, which is especially important in pediatric transplant patients.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2020.12.009
View details for PubMedID 33455722