BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant-recipients (HSCT) can be life threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated.METHODS: We performed a systematic review (PubMed last search 03/29/2020) of toxoplasmosis among HSCT-recipients and calculated the toxoplasmosis prevalence across studies. We also created a compilation list of brain imaging, chest imaging and autopsy findings of toxoplasmosis among HSCT-recipients.RESULTS: We identified 46 eligible studies (47 datasets) with 399 toxoplasmosis cases among 38751 HSCT-recipients. There was large heterogeneity in the reported toxoplasmosis prevalence across studies, thus formal meta-analysis was not attempted. The median toxoplasmosis prevalence among 38751 HSCT-recipients was 2.14% (range 0-66.67%). Data on toxoplasmosis among at-risk R+HSCT-recipients were more limited (25 studies; 2404 R+HSCT-recipients [6.2% of all HSCT-recipients]) although the median number of R+HSCT-recipients was 56.79% across all HSCT-recipients. Median toxoplasmosis prevalence across studies among 2404 R+HSCT was 7.51% (range 0-80%) vs 0% (range 0-1.23%) among 7438 R-HSCT. There were limited data to allow meaningful analyses of toxoplasmosis prevalence according to prophylaxis-status of R+HSCT-recipients.CONCLUSION: Toxoplasmosis prevalence among HSCT-recipients is underestimated. The majority of studies report toxoplasmosis prevalence among all HSCT-recipients rather than only among the at-risk R+HSCT-recipients. In fact, the median toxoplasmosis prevalence among all R+/R- HSCT-recipients is 3.5-fold lower compared to the prevalence among only the at-risk R+HSCT-recipients and the median prevalence among R+HSCT-recipients is 7.51-fold higher than among R-HSCT-recipients. The imaging findings of toxoplasmosis among HSCT-recipients can be atypical. High-index of suspicion is needed in R+HSCT-recipients with fever, pneumonia or encephalitis.
View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0000000000003662
View details for PubMedID 33654004