There has been no systematic review of the prevalence of transmitted integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) resistance. We systematically searched the English-language PubMed database and GenBank to identify studies published since 2010 reporting 50 or more INSTI-naïve HIV-1-infected adults undergoing integrase genotyping. We extracted data related to country, sample year, specimen type, sequencing method, and subtype. For studies with sequences in GenBank, we determined the prevalence of three categories of INSTI-associated resistance mutations: (i) nonpolymorphic INSTI-selected drug resistance mutations (DRMs) that we refer to as surveillance DRMs; (ii) rarely selected nonpolymorphic INSTI-associated DRMs; and (iii) common polymorphic accessory INSTI-selected DRMs. 103 studies met inclusion criteria including 75 studies in GenBank containing integrase sequences from 16,481 INSTI-naïve persons. The median sample year was 2013 (IQR: 2008-2014). The prevalence of INSTI surveillance DRMs, rarely selected DRMs, and common polymorphic accessory INSTI-selected DRMs were 0.5%, 0.8%, and 6.2%, respectively. There was no association between the presence of nonpolymorphic surveillance DRM and region, sample year, or subtype. Two surveillance DRMs, E138K and R263K occurred in 0.15% and 0.10% of naïve sequences, respectively. Several lines of evidence suggested that the 0.5% prevalence of surveillance DRMs partly reflects the cumulative natural occurrence of these mutations in the absence of selective drug pressure. There was an unexplained temporal increase in the proportion of sequences with polymorphic accessory mutations. The prevalence of INSTI-associated surveillance DRMs is low even in regions where INSTIs have been a major component of antiretroviral therapy for several years. The presence of INSTI-associated surveillance DRMs in INSTI-naïve persons likely results from actual cases of transmitted INSTI resistance and from a low background level reflecting the cumulative rare natural occurrence of several nonpolymorphic mutations.
View details for DOI 10.1089/AID.2020.0261
View details for PubMedID 33683148