Efficacy of a Centralized, Blended Electronic and Human Intervention to Improve Direct Oral Anticoagulant Adherence: Smartphones to improve rivaroxaban ADHEREnce in Atrial Fibrillation (SmartADHERE) A Randomized Clinical Trial: SmartADHERE rivaroxaban adherence trial. American heart journal Turakhia, M. n., Sundaram, V. n., Smith, S. N., Ding, V. n., Michael Ho, P. n., Kowey, P. R., Piccini, J. P., Foody, J. n., Birmingham, M. n., Ianus, J. n., Rajmane, A. n., Mahaffey, K. W. 2021


Improving adherence to direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) is challenging, and simple text messaging reminders have not been effective.SmartADHERE was a randomized trial that tested a personalized digital and human direct oral anticoagulant adherence intervention compared to usual care. Eligibility required age = 18, newly-prescribed (= 90 days) rivaroxaban for atrial fibrillation (AF), 1 of 4 at-risk criteria for nonadherence, and a smartphone. The intervention consisted of combination of a medication management smartphone app, daily app-based reminders, adaptive text messaging, and phone-based counseling for severe nonadherence. The primary outcome was the proportion of days covered by rivaroxaban (PDC) at 6 months. There were 25 U.S. sites, all cardiology and electrophysiology outpatient practices, activated for a target sample size of 378, but the study was terminated by the sponsor prior to reaching target enrollment.There were 139 participants (age 65±9.6 years, 30% female, median CHA2DS2-VASc score 3 with IQR 2-4, mean total medication burden 7.7±4.4). DOAC adherence was high in both arms with no difference in the primary outcome (PDC 0.86±0.25 intervention vs 0.88±0.25 control, p=0.62) or in secondary outcomes including PDC = 0.80 and medication persistence. Per protocol analyses had similar results. Because of the high overall PDC, the likelihood to answer the primary hypothesis was only 51% even if target enrollment were achieved. There were no study-related adverse events.The use of a centralized digital and human adherence intervention was feasible across multiple sites. Overall adherence was much higher than expected despite pre-screening for at-risk individuals. SmartADHERE illustrates the challenges of trials of behavioral and technology interventions, where enrollment itself may lead to selection bias or treatment effects. Pragmatic study designs, such as cluster randomization or stepped-wedge implementation, should be considered to improve enrollment and generalizability.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2021.02.023

View details for PubMedID 33676886