BACKGROUND: Although multidisciplinary treatments including the use of adjuvant therapy (AT) have been adopted for biliary tract cancers, patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma (DCC) can still experience recurrence. We sought to characterize the incidence and predictors of early recurrence (ER) that occurred within 12 months following surgeryfor DCC.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent resection for DCC between 2000 and 2015 were identified from the US multi-institutional database. Cox regression analysis was used to identify clinicopathological factors to develop anER risk score, and the predictive model was validated in an external dataset.RESULTS: Among 245 patients included in the analysis, 67 patients (27.3%) developed ER. No difference was noted in ER rates between patients who did and did not receive AT (28.7% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.55). Multivariable analysis revealed that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), peak total bilirubin (T-Bil), major vascular resection (MVR), lymphovascular invasion, and R1 surgical margin status were associated with a higher ER risk. A DIstal Cholangiocarcinoma Early Recurrence Score was developed according to each factor available prior to surgery [NLR > 9.0 (2 points); peak T-bil > 1.5 mg/dL (1 points); MVR (2 points)]. Cumulative ER rates incrementally increased among patients who were low (0 points; 10.6%), intermediate (1-2 points; 26.8%), or high (3-5 points; 57.6%) risk (p < 0.001) in the training dataset, as well as in the validation dataset [low (0 points); 3.4%, intermediate (1-2 points); 32.7%, or high risk (3-5 points); 55.6% (p < 0.001)].CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing resection for DCC, 1 in 4 patients experienced an ER. Alternative treatment strategies such as neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be considered especially among individuals deemed to be at high risk for ER.
View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-021-09811-4
View details for PubMedID 33709171