Background Interval cancer rates can be used to evaluate whether screening with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) contributes to a screening benefit. Purpose To compare interval cancer rates and tumor characteristics in DBT screening to those in a contemporary population screened with digital mammography (DM). Materials and Methods The prospective population-based Malmo Breast Tomosynthesis Screening Trial (MBTST) was designed to compare one-view DBT to two-view DM in breast cancer detection. The interval cancer rates and cancer characteristics in the MBTST were compared with an age-matched contemporary control group, screened with two-view DM at the same center. Conditional logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results There were 14 848 women who were screened with DBT and DM in the MBTST between January 2010 and February 2015. The trial women were matched with two women of the same age and screening occasion at DM screening during the same period. Matches for 13 369 trial women (mean age, 56 years ± 10 [standard deviation]) were found with 26 738 women in the control group (mean age, 56 years ± 10). The interval cancer rate in the MBTST was 1.6 per 1000 screened women (21 of 13 369; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.4) compared with 2.8 per 1000 screened women in the control group (76 of 26 738 [95% CI: 2.2, 3.6]; conditional odds ratio, 0.6 [95% CI: 0.3, 0.9]; P = .02). The invasive interval cancers in the MBTST and in the control group showed in general high Ki-67 (63% [12 of 19] and 75% [54 of 72]), and low proportions of luminal A-like subtype (26% [five of 19] and 17% [12 of 72]), respectively. Conclusion The reduced interval cancer rate after screening with digital breast tomosynthesis compared with a contemporary age-matched control group screened with digital mammography might translate into screening benefits. Interval cancers in the trial generally had nonfavorable characteristics. ©RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Mann in this issue.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2021204106
View details for PubMedID 33825509