Objectives: The standard initial approach in patients with hematuria or other symptoms suggestive of bladder cancer (BC) is a combination of cystoscopy and urine cytology (UC); however, UC has low sensitivity particularly in low-grade tumors. The aim of the present review was to critically analyze and compare results in the literature of promising molecular urinary tests for the initial diagnosis of BC.Methods: We searched in the Medline and Cochrane Library databases for literature from January 2009 to January 2019, following the PRISMAguidelines.Results: In terms of sensitivity, ImmunoCyt showed the highest mean and median value, higher than UC. All tests analyses showed higher mean and median sensitivity when compared with UC. In terms of specificity, only UroVysion and Microsatellite analyses showed mean and median values similar to those of UC, whereas for all other tests, the specificity was lower than UC. It is evident that the sensitivity of UC is particularly low in low grade BC. Urinary tests mainly had improved sensitivity when compared to UC, and ImmunoCyt and UroVysion had the highest improvement in low grade tumors.Conclusions: Most of the proposed molecular markers were able to improve the sensitivity with similar or lower specificity when compared to UC. However, variability of results among the different studies was strong. Thus, as of now, none of these markers presented evidences so as to be accepted by international guidelines for diagnosis of BC.
View details for DOI 10.1097/CU9.0000000000000012
View details for PubMedID 34084118