MRI is an essential diagnostic tool in the anatomic and functional evaluation of cardiovascular disease. In many practices, 2D phase-contrast (2D-PC) has been used for blood flow quantification. 4D Flow MRI is a time-resolved volumetric acquisition that captures the vector field of blood flow along with anatomic images. 4D Flow MRI provides a simpler acquisition compared to 2D-PC and facilitates a more accurate and comprehensive hemodynamic assessment. Advancements in accelerated imaging have significantly shortened scan times of 4D Flow MRI while preserving image quality, enabling this technology to transition from the research arena to routine clinical practice. In this article, we review technical optimization based on our clinical experience of over 10 years with 4D Flow MRI. We also present pearls and pitfalls in the practical application of 4D Flow MRI, including how to quantify cardiovascular shunts, valvular or vascular stenosis, and valvular regurgitation. As experience increases, and as 4D Flow sequences and post-processing software become more broadly available, 4D Flow MRI will likely become an essential component of cardiac imaging for practices involved in the management of congenital and acquired structural heart disease.
View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.21.25978
View details for PubMedID 34076463