Exercise training prevents multiple diseases, yet the molecular mechanisms that drive exercise adaptation are incompletely understood. To address this, we create a computational framework comprising data from skeletal muscle or blood from 43 studies, including 739 individuals before and after exercise or training. Using linear mixed effects meta-regression, we detect specific time patterns and regulatory modulators of the exercise response. Acute and long-term responses are transcriptionally distinct and we identify SMAD3 as a central regulator of the exercise response. Exercise induces a more pronounced inflammatory response in skeletal muscle of older individuals and our models reveal multiple sex-associated responses. We validate seven of our top genes in a separate human cohort. In this work, we provide a powerful resource ( www.extrameta.org ) that expands the transcriptional landscape of exercise adaptation by extending previously known responses and their regulatory networks, and identifying novel modality-, time-, age-, and sex-associated changes.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-23579-x
View details for PubMedID 34108459