The Changing Epidemiology of Liver Disease Among US Children and Adolescents From 1999 to 2016. The American journal of gastroenterology Li, J., Le, M. H., Barakat, M. T., Cheung, R. C., Nguyen, M. H. 2021


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major causes of liver disease in adults. However, data for children and adolescents are limited. Our study aimed to characterize the prevalence, trend, and risk factors of infection of HBV and HCV and possible NAFLD for this population.We analyzed 6,647 children and adolescents (aged 6-21 years) from the 1999-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Among individuals aged 6-21 years, HBV prevalence decreased after 2011, from 0.72% in 1999-2004 and 0.85% in 2005-2010 to 0.27% in 2011-2016 (P < 0.001), whereas HCV prevalence increased to 0.26% in 2011-2016 after an initial decline from 0.15% in 1999-2004 to 0.02% in 2005-2010 (P = 0.01). Possible NAFLD prevalence also increased by approximately 40% in individuals aged 12-21 years, from 8.54% in 1999-2004 to 10.1% in 2005-2010 and then 11.8% in 2011-2016 (P = 0.033), with most possible NAFLD individuals being male, being obese, or having higher glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, liver enzymes, lipids, and uric acid (all P < 0.01). On multivariate logistic regression, hypertension (odds ratio 4.79, 95% confidence interval 1.44-15.9) and dyslipidemia (odds ratio 11.6, 95% confidence interval 5.65-23.9) increased risk for possible NAFLD but not income:poverty ratio, hours spent on computer use, or added sugars.Although HBV prevalence has decreased in recent years among US children and adolescents, HCV and possible NAFLD have increased. Public health efforts must seek further understanding of the driving factors of this increase so that age-appropriate interventions can be developed and implemented.

View details for DOI 10.14309/ajg.0000000000001386

View details for PubMedID 34328446