Plasma Lipolysis and Changes in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid Signaling Lipids Reveal Abnormal Lipid Metabolism in Chronic Migraine. Frontiers in molecular neuroscience Castor, K., Dawlaty, J., Arakaki, X., Gross, N., Woldeamanuel, Y. W., Harrington, M. G., Cowan, R. P., Fonteh, A. N. 2021; 14: 691733


Background: Lipids are a primary storage form of energy and the source of inflammatory and pain signaling molecules, yet knowledge of their importance in chronic migraine (CM) pathology is incomplete. We aim to determine if plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lipid metabolism are associated with CM pathology.Methods: We obtained plasma and CSF from healthy controls (CT, n = 10) or CM subjects (n = 15) diagnosed using the International Headache Society criteria. We measured unesterified fatty acid (UFA) and esterified fatty acids (EFAs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Glycerophospholipids (GP) and sphingolipid (SP) levels were determined using LC-MS/MS, and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity was determined using fluorescent substrates.Results: Unesterified fatty acid levels were significantly higher in CM plasma but not in CSF. Unesterified levels of five saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), eight monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), five omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and five omega-6 PUFAs are higher in CM plasma. Esterified levels of three SAFAs, eight MUFAs, five omega-3 PUFAs, and three omega-6 PUFAs, are higher in CM plasma. The ratios C20:4n-6/homo-gamma-C20:3n-6 representative of delta-5-desaturases (D5D) and the elongase ratio are lower in esterified and unesterified CM plasma, respectively. In the CSF, the esterified D5D index is lower in CM. While PLA2 activity was similar, the plasma UFA to EFA ratio is higher in CM. Of all plasma GP/SPs detected, only ceramide levels are lower (p = 0.0003) in CM (0.26 ± 0.07%) compared to CT (0.48 ± 0.06%). The GP/SP proportion of platelet-activating factor (PAF) is significantly lower in CM CSF.Conclusions: Plasma and CSF lipid changes are consistent with abnormal lipid metabolism in CM. Since plasma UFAs correspond to diet or adipose tissue levels, higher plasma fatty acids and UFA/EFA ratios suggest enhanced adipose lipolysis in CM. Differences in plasma and CSF desaturases and elongases suggest altered lipid metabolism in CM. A lower plasma ceramide level suggests reduced de novo synthesis or reduced sphingomyelin hydrolysis. Changes in CSF PAF suggest differences in brain lipid signaling pathways in CM. Together, this pilot study shows lipid metabolic abnormality in CM corresponding to altered energy homeostasis. We propose that controlling plasma lipolysis, desaturases, elongases, and lipid signaling pathways may relieve CM symptoms.

View details for DOI 10.3389/fnmol.2021.691733

View details for PubMedID 34531722