Hip dislocation is a rare occurrence during sports but carries serious implications for athletes.To systematically review treatment strategies and outcomes for hip dislocation in athletes, with the ultimate goal of providing sports medicine physicians with the information necessary to appropriately treat and counsel patients sustaining this injury.Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4.PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase were searched for studies relating to hip instability and athletics from January 1, 1989 to October 1, 2019. Abstracts and articles were evaluated on the basis of predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were the following: (1) data from =1 patients, (2) native hip dislocation or subluxation occurring during sports, (3) patients aged at least 10 years, and (4) written in English. Exclusion criteria were (1) patients younger than 10 years; (2) nonnative or postoperative hip dislocation or subluxation; (3) a native hip injury without dislocation or subluxation; (4) patients with dislocation or subluxation secondary to neuromuscular, developmental, or syndromic causes; (5) dislocation or subluxation not occurring during sports; (6) patients with physeal fractures; or (7) review articles or meta-analyses. Data were recorded on patient demographics, injury mechanism, treatment strategies, and clinical and radiographic outcomes. Where possible, pooled analysis was performed. Studies were grouped based on reported outcomes. Meta-analysis was then performed on these pooled subsets.A total of 602 articles were initially identified, and after screening by 2 reviewers, 27 articles reporting on 145 patients were included in the final review. There were 2 studies that identified morphological differences between patients with posterior dislocation and controls, including decreased acetabular anteversion (P = .015 and .068, respectively), increased prevalence of a cam deformity (P < .0035), higher alpha angles (P= .0213), and decreased posterior acetabular coverage (P < .001). No differences were identified for the lateral center edge angle or Tonnis angle. Protected postreduction weightbearing was most commonly prescribed for 2 to 6 weeks, with 65% of reporting authors recommending touchdown, toe-touch, or crutch-assisted weightbearing. Recurrence was reported in 3% of cases. Overall, 4 studies reported on findings at hip arthroscopic surgery, including a 100% incidence of labral tears (n = 27; 4 studies), 92% incidence of chondral injuries, 20% incidence of capsular tears, and 84% incidence of ligamentum teres tears (n = 25; 2 studies). At final follow-up, 86% of patients reported no pain (n = 14; 12 studies), 87% reported a successful return to play (n = 39; 10 studies), and 11% had radiographic evidence of osteonecrosis (n = 38; 10 studies).Various treatment strategies have been described in the literature, and multiple methods have yielded promising clinical and radiographic outcomes in patients with native hip dislocation sustained during sporting activity. Data support nonoperative treatment with protected weightbearing for hips with concentric reduction and without significant fractures and an operative intervention to obtain concentric reduction if unachievable by closed means alone. Imaging for osteonecrosis is recommended, with evidence suggesting 4- to 6-week magnetic resonance imaging and follow-up at 3 months for those with suspicious findings in the femoral head.
View details for DOI 10.1177/03635465211036104
View details for PubMedID 34623933