Maternal Complications and Prescription Opioid Exposure During Pregnancy: Using Marginal Structural Models. Drug safety Wen, X., Wang, S., Lewkowitz, A. K., Ward, K. E., Brousseau, E. C., Meador, K. J. 2021


INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioids are frequently used for pain management in pregnancy. Studies examining perinatal complications in mothers who received prescription opioids during pregnancy are still limited.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association of prescription opioid use and maternal pregnancy and obstetric complications.METHODS: This retrospective cohort study with the Rhode Island (RI) Medicaid claims data linked to vital statistics throughout 2008-2015 included pregnant women aged 12-55 years with one or multiple live births. Women were excluded if they had cancer, opioid use disorder, or opioid dispensing prior to but not during pregnancy. Main outcomes included adverse pregnancy and obstetric complications. Marginal Structural Cox Models with time-varying exposure and covariates were applied to control for baseline and time-varying covariates. Analyses were conducted for outcomes that occurred 1 week after opioid exposure (primary) or within the same week as exposure (secondary). Sensitivity studies were conducted to assess the effects of different doses and individual opioids.RESULTS: Of 9823 eligible mothers, 545 (5.5%) filled one or more prescription opioid during pregnancy. Compared with those unexposed, no significant risk was observed in primary analyses, while in secondary analyses opioid-exposed mothers were associated with an increased risk of cesarean antepartum depression (HR 3.19; 95% CI 1.22-8.33), and cardiac events (HR 9.44; 95% CI 1.19-74.83). In sensitivity analyses, results are more prominent in high dose exposure and are consistent for individual opioids.CONCLUSIONS: Prescription opioid use during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of maternal complications.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s40264-021-01115-6

View details for PubMedID 34609720