Scleroderma and the Esophagus. Gastroenterology clinics of North America Ahuja, N. K., Clarke, J. O. 2021; 50 (4): 905-918


The gastrointestinal tract is the second largest organ system in the body and is often affected by connective tissue disorders. Scleroderma is the classic rheumatologic disease affecting the esophagus; more than 90% of patients with scleroderma have esophageal involvement. This article highlights esophageal manifestations of scleroderma, focusing on pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic considerations, and treatment options. In addition, this article briefly reviews the esophageal manifestations of other key connective tissue disorders, including mixed connective tissue disease, myositis, Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, fibromyalgia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.08.005

View details for PubMedID 34717878