Various surgical treatment options exist for repairing, replacing, or regenerating tissue to fill osteochondral defects. Biologic augmentation has been increasingly studied as an adjunct in the surgical treatment of osteochondral defects of the knee in animal and human models.The purpose of the study was to systematically review use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow concentrate (BMC) augmentation in the surgical treatment of osteochondral knee defects and to describe the outcomes. It was hypothesized that both PRP and BMC augmentation will result in improved outcomes in osteochondral knee surgery in both animal and human models.Systematic review.PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase were searched for studies relating to PRP or BMC and treatment of osteochondral defects of the knee, from database inception to February 1, 2020. Included were articles that (1) studied PRP or BMC augmentation; (2) used osteochondral autograft, allograft, or biologic scaffold; and (3) treated osteochondral defects in the knee. Data on use of PRP or BMC, outcomes assessed, and results were recorded for each publication.Of the 541 articles identified initially, 17 were included in the final review. Five articles studied osteochondral grafts in animals, 5 studied biologic scaffolds in animals, and 7 studied scaffolds or allografts in humans; the combined sample size was 202 patients. Of 4 histologic scaffold studies, 3 PRP-augmented scaffold studies identified histologic improvements in regenerated cartilage in animal models, while 1 BMC study demonstrated similar improvement in histologic scores of BMC-augmented scaffolds compared with controls. Three studies associated greater collagen type 2 and glycosaminoglycan content with PRP treatment. Comparative studies found that both augments increase osteogenic proteins, including bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteoprotegerin. Two of 3 studies on BMC-augmented osteochondral allografts reported no difference in radiographic features postoperatively. Long-term improvement in clinical and radiographic outcomes of PRP-augmented scaffolds was demonstrated in 1 human study.Animal studies suggest that biologics possess potential as adjuncts to surgical treatment of osteochondral knee defects; however, clinical data remain limited.
View details for DOI 10.1177/23259671211049756
View details for PubMedID 34778474
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8573505