Glioblastoma has emerged as an immunotherapy-refractory tumor based on negative phase III studies of anti-programmed cell death-1 therapy among newly diagnosed as well as recurrent patients. In addition, although much work on vaccine and cellular approaches is ongoing, therapeutic benefit with these approaches has been underwhelming. Much scientific insight into the multitiered layers of immunosuppression exploited by glioblastoma tumors is emerging that sheds light on the explanation for the disappointing results to date and highlights possible therapeutic avenues that may offer a better likelihood of therapeutic benefit for immune-based therapies.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hoc.2021.09.002
View details for PubMedID 34801163