INTRODUCTION: Ablation of papillary muscles (PM) for refractory ventricular arrhythmias can often be challenging. The catheter approach and orientation during ablation may affect optimal radiofrequency (RF) delivery. Yet, no previous study investigated the association between catheter orientation and PM lesion size. We evaluated ablation lesion characteristics with various catheter orientations relative to the PM tissue during open irrigated ablation, using a standardized, experimental setting.METHODS: Viable bovine PM was positioned on a load cell in a circulating saline bath. RF ablation was performed over PM tissue at 50W, with the open irrigated catheter positioned either perpendicular or parallel to the PM surface. Applied force was 10 grams. Ablation lesions were sectioned and underwent quantitative morphometric analysis.RESULTS: A catheter position oriented directly perpendicular to the PM tissue resulted in the largest ablation lesion volumes and depths compared to ablation with the catheter parallel to PM tissue (75.26±8.40 mm3 vs. 34.04±2.91 mm3 , p<0.001) and (3.33±0.18 mm vs. 2.24±0.10 mm, p<0.001), respectively. There were no significant differences in initial impedance, peak voltage, peak current, or overall decrease in impedance among groups. Parallel catheter orientation resulted in higher peak temperature (41.33±0.28°C vs. 40.28±0.24°C, p=0.003), yet, there were no steam pops in either group.CONCLUSION: For PM ablation, catheter orientation perpendicular to the PM tissue achieves more effective and larger ablation lesions, with greater lesion depth. This may have implications for the chosen ventricular access approach, the type of catheter used, consideration for remote navigation, and steerable sheaths. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1111/jce.15408
View details for PubMedID 35133050