EEG Evoked Potentials to Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Normal Volunteers: Inhibitory TMS EEG Evoked Potentials. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Zhou, J., Fogarty, A., Pfeifer, K., Seliger, J., Fisher, R. S. 2022; 22 (5)


The impact of repetitive magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cortex varies with stimulation parameters, so it would be useful to develop a biomarker to rapidly judge effects on cortical activity, including regions other than motor cortex. This study evaluated rTMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEP) after 1 Hz of motor cortex stimulation. New features are controls for baseline amplitude and comparison to control groups of sham stimulation. We delivered 200 test pulses at 0.20 Hz before and after 1500 treatment pulses at 1 Hz. Sequences comprised AAA = active stimulation with the same coil for test-treat-test phases (n = 22); PPP = realistic placebo coil stimulation for all three phases (n = 10); and APA = active coil stimulation for tests and placebo coil stimulation for treatment (n = 15). Signal processing displayed the evoked EEG waveforms, and peaks were measured by software. ANCOVA was used to measure differences in TEP peak amplitudes in post-rTMS trials while controlling for pre-rTMS TEP peak amplitude. Post hoc analysis showed reduced P60 amplitude in the active (AAA) rTMS group versus the placebo (APA) group. The N100 peak showed a treatment effect compared to the placebo groups, but no pairwise post hoc differences. N40 showed a trend toward increase. Changes were seen in widespread EEG leads, mostly ipsilaterally. TMS-evoked EEG potentials showed reduction of the P60 peak and increase of the N100 peak, both possibly reflecting increased slow inhibition after 1 Hz of rTMS. TMS-EEG may be a useful biomarker to assay brain excitability at a seizure focus and elsewhere, but individual responses are highly variable, and the difficulty of distinguishing merged peaks complicates interpretation.

View details for DOI 10.3390/s22051762

View details for PubMedID 35270910