PURPOSE: Deep learning (DL) based reconstruction using unrolled neural networks has shown great potential in accelerating MRI. However, one of the major drawbacks is the loss of high-frequency details and textures in the output. The purpose of the study is to propose a novel refinement method that uses null-space kernel to refine k-space and improve blurred image details and textures.METHODS: The proposed method constrains the output of the DL to comply to the linear neighborhood relationship calibrated in the auto-calibration lines. To demonstrate efficacy, we tested our refinement method on the DL reconstruction under a variety of conditions (i.e., dataset, unrolled neural networks, and under-sampling scheme). Specifically, the method was tested on three large-scale public datasets (knee and brain) from fastMRI's multi-coil track.RESULTS: The proposed scheme visually reduces the structural error in the k-space domain, enhance the homogeneity of the k-space intensity. Consequently, reconstructed image shows sharper images with enhanced details and textures. The proposed method is also successful in improving high-frequency image details (SSIM, GMSD) without sacrificing overall image error (PSNR).CONCLUSION: Our findings imply that refining DL output using the proposed method may generally improve DL reconstruction as tested with various large-scale dataset and networks.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.29261
View details for PubMedID 35426470