Serological Phenotyping Analysis Uncovers a Unique Metabolomic Pattern Associated With Early Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Frontiers in molecular biosciences Zhu, L., Huang, Q., Li, X., Jin, B., Ding, Y., Chou, C. J., Su, K., Zhang, Y., Chen, X., Hwa, K. Y., Thyparambil, S., Liao, W., Han, Z., Mortensen, R., Jin, Y., Li, Z., Schilling, J., Li, Z., Sylvester, K. G., Sun, X., Ling, X. B. 2022; 9: 841209


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifaceted disorder affecting epidemic proportion at global scope. Defective insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells and the inability of insulin-sensitive tissues to respond effectively to insulin are the underlying biology of T2DM. However, circulating biomarkers indicative of early diabetic onset at the asymptomatic stage have not been well described. We hypothesized that global and targeted mass spectrometry (MS) based metabolomic discovery can identify novel serological metabolic biomarkers specifically associated with T2DM. We further hypothesized that these markers can have a unique pattern associated with latent or early asymptomatic stage, promising an effective liquid biopsy approach for population T2DM risk stratification and screening. Methods: Four independent cohorts were assembled for the study. The T2DM cohort included sera from 25 patients with T2DM and 25 healthy individuals for the biomarker discovery and sera from 15 patients with T2DM and 15 healthy controls for the testing. The Pre-T2DM cohort included sera from 76 with prediabetes and 62 healthy controls for the model training and sera from 35 patients with prediabetes and 27 healthy controls for the model testing. Both global and targeted (amino acid, acylcarnitine, and fatty acid) approaches were used to deep phenotype the serological metabolome by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Different machine learning approaches (Random Forest, XGBoost, and ElasticNet) were applied to model the unique T2DM/Pre-T2DM metabolic patterns and contrasted with their effectiness to differentiate T2DM/Pre-T2DM from controls. Results: The univariate analysis identified unique panel of metabolites (n = 22) significantly associated with T2DM. Global metabolomics and subsequent structure determination led to the identification of 8 T2DM biomarkers while targeted LCMS profiling discovered 14 T2DM biomarkers. Our panel can effectively differentiate T2DM (ROC AUC = 1.00) or Pre-T2DM (ROC AUC = 0.84) from the controls in the respective testing cohort. Conclusion: Our serological metabolite panel can be utilized to identifiy asymptomatic population at risk of T2DM, which may provide utility in identifying population at risk at an early stage of diabetic development to allow for clinical intervention. This early detection would guide ehanced levels of care and accelerate development of clinical strategies to prevent T2DM.

View details for DOI 10.3389/fmolb.2022.841209

View details for PubMedID 35463946