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OBJECTIVE: Several techniques have been described to improve the accuracy of the freehand procedure for frontal ventriculostomy and reduce complications due to suboptimal placement or misplacement of the catheter tip. To date, none of the available studies have found a reliable, low cost and consistent technique. We aimed to provide a standardized protocol for freehand frontal ventriculostomy.METHODS: In the first part of the radiological study, 125 CT scans were used to measure the length of the catheter using 2 right-sided entry points. In the second part, a grid of 24 entry points on the frontal bone was used in 50 CT scans to record the distance from the cranial surface to the Foramen of Monro (FM). Ventriculostomy was performed on six cadaveric heads using a grid of 9 entry points, comparing a 5ml syringe with the freehand technique to reach the target.RESULTS: The first part of the radiological study showed a length from the cranial surface to the FM was overall 67,38±1,03mm. For the second part, the mean length of the 24 selected points was 68,54±2,73mm without statistical difference. In the anatomical study, the FM was reached 8 times (14.8%) with the syringe vs 31 times (57.4%) with the freehand technique, and the ventricles 43 (79.6%) vs 37 (68.5%). The mean lengths from the skull to the FM were 71.33±4.21mm.CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we showed the optimal length of a frontal ventricular catheter. We have also demonstrated that the portion of the frontal bone above the superior temporal lines matches a sphere in which the center is the FM.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clineuro.2022.107264
View details for PubMedID 35526512