OBJECTIVE: Electrical source localization (ESI) can help to identify the seizure onset zone or propagation zone, but it is unclear how dipole localization techniques influence surgical planning.METHODS: Patients who received a high density (HD)-EEG from 7/2014-7/2019 at Stanford were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1) adequate epileptiform discharges were recorded for source localization analysis, (2) underwent surgical treatment, which was at least 6 months before the survey. Interictal ESI was performed with the LORETA method on age matched MRIs. Six neurophysiologists from the Stanford Epilepsy Program independently reviewed each case through an HIPPA-protected online survey. The same cases were presented again with additional data from the HD-EEG study. Ratings of how much the HD-EEG findings added value and in what way were recorded.RESULTS: Fifty out of 202 patients met the inclusion criteria, providing a total of 276h of HDEEG recordings. All patients had video EEG recordings and at least one brain MRI, 88 % had neuropsychological testing, 78 % had either a PET or SPECT scan. Additional HD-EEG information was rated as helpful in 83.8 %, not useful in 14.4 % and misleading in 1.8 % of cases. In 20.4 % of cases the HD-EEG information altered decision-making in a major way, such as choosing a different surgical procedure, avoidance of invasive recording or suggesting placement of invasive electrodes in a lobe not previously planned. In 21.5 % of cases, HD-EEG changed the plan in a minor way, e.g., extra invasive electrodes near the previously planned sites in the same sub-lobar region. In 42.3 % cases, HD-EEG did not change their plan but provided confirmation. In cases with normal MRI, additional HD-EEG information was more likely to change physicians' decision making during presurgical process when compared to the cases with MRI-visible lesions (53.3 % vs. 34.3 %, p=0.002). Among patients achieving Engel class I/II outcome, the concordance rate of HD-EEG and resection zone was 64.7 % versus 35.3 % with class III/IV (p=0.028).CONCLUSION: HD-EEG assists presurgical planning for refractory epilepsy patients, with a higher yield in patients with non-lesional MRIs. Concordance of HD-EEG dipole analysis localization and resection site is a favorable outcome indicator.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clineuro.2022.107336
View details for PubMedID 35716454