A prospective study of the infant gut microbiome in relation to vaccine response. Pediatric research Moroishi, Y., Gui, J., Nadeau, K. C., Morrison, H. G., Madan, J., Karagas, M. R. 2022


BACKGROUND: The establishment of the gut microbiome plays a key symbiotic role in the developing immune system; however, its influence on vaccine response is yet uncertain. We prospectively investigated the composition and diversity of the early-life gut microbiome in relation to infant antibody response to two routinely administered vaccines.METHODS: Eighty-three infants enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study were included in the analysis. We collected blood samples at 12 months of age and assayed the isolated serum to quantify total IgG and measured antibody to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide and tetanus toxoid. Stool samples were collected from infants at 6 weeks of age and sequenced using 16S rRNA, and a subset of 61 samples were sequenced using shotgun metagenomics sequencing.RESULTS: We observed differences in beta diversity for 16S 6-week stool microbiota and pneumococcal and tetanus IgG antibody responses. Metagenomics analyses identified species and metabolic pathways in 6-week stool associated with tetanus antibody response, in particular, negative associations with the relative abundance of Aeriscardovia aeriphila species and positive associations with the relative abundance of species associated with CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis pathways.CONCLUSIONS: The early gut microbiome composition may influence an infant's vaccine response.IMPACT: Early intestinal microbiome acquisition plays a critical role in immune maturation and in both adaptive and innate immune response in infancy. We identified associations between early life microbiome composition and response to two routinely administered vaccines-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide and tetanus toxoid-measured at approximately 1 year of age. Our findings highlight the potential impact of the gut microbiome on infant immune response that may open up opportunities for future interventions.

View details for DOI 10.1038/s41390-022-02154-0

View details for PubMedID 35717483