Background: Bone stress injury (BSI) is a common reason for missed practices and competitions in elite track and field runners.Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that, after accounting for medical risk factors, higher plantar loading during running, walking, and athletic movements would predict the risk of future BSI in elite collegiate runners.Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.Methods: A total of 39 elite collegiate runners (24 male, 15 female) were evaluated during the 2014-2015 academic year to determine the degree to which plantar pressure data and medical history (including Female and Male Athlete Triad risk factors) could predict subsequent BSI. Runners completed athletic movements while plantar pressures and contact areas in 7 key areas of the foot were recorded, and the measurements were reported overall and by specific foot area. Regression models were constructed to determine factors related to incident BSI.Results: Twenty-one runners (12 male, 9 female) sustained =1 incident BSI during the study period. Four regression models incorporating both plantar pressure measurements and medical risk factors were able to predict the subsequent occurrence of (A) BSIs in female runners, (B) BSIs in male runners, (C) multiple BSIs in either male or female runners, and (D) foot BSIs in female runners. Model A used maximum mean pressure (MMP) under the first metatarsal during a jump takeoff and only misclassified 1 female with no BSI. Model B used increased impulses under the hindfoot and second through fifth distal metatarsals while walking, and under the lesser toes during a cutting task, correctly categorizing 83.3% of male runners. Model C used higher medial midfoot peak pressure during a shuttle run and triad cumulative risk scores and correctly categorized 93.3% of runners who did not incur multiple BSIs and 66.7% of those who did. Model D included lower hindfoot impulses in the shuttle run and higher first metatarsal MMP during treadmill walking to correctly predict the subsequent occurrence of a foot BSI for 75% of women and 100% without.Conclusion: The models collectively suggested that higher plantar pressure may contribute to risk for BSI.
View details for DOI 10.1177/23259671221104793
View details for PubMedID 35734769