Calcinosis, insoluble calcium compounds deposited in skin and other tissues, is a crippling sequela of dermatomyositis. Prolonged disease associated with ongoing inflammation, ischemia, repetitive trauma, and certain autoantibodies are associated with calcinosis. Herein, we describe potential pathogenic mechanisms including the role of mitochondrial calcification. There are no widely effective treatments for calcinosis. We review available pharmacologic therapies for calcinosis including those targeting calcium and phosphorus metabolism; immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory therapies; and vasodilators. Mounting evidence supports the use of various formulations of sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of calcinosis. Although the early institution of aggressive immunosuppression may prevent calcinosis in juvenile dermatomyositis, only limited data support improvement once it has developed. Minocycline can be useful particularly for lesions associated with surrounding inflammation. Powerful vasodilators, such as prostacyclin analogs, may have promise in the treatment of calcinosis, but further studies are necessary. Surgical removal of lesions when amenable is our treatment of choice.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.berh.2022.101768
View details for PubMedID 35803868