PURPOSE: To develop and validate a deep learning-based reconstruction framework for highly accelerated two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast (PC-MRI) data with accurate and precise quantitative measurements.METHODS: We propose a modified DL-ESPIRiT reconstruction framework for 2D PC-MRI, comprised of an unrolled neural network architecture with a Complex Difference estimation (CD-DL). CD-DL was trained on 155 fully sampled 2D PC-MRI pediatric clinical datasets. The fully sampled data ( n = 29 $$ n=29 $$ ) was retrospectively undersampled (6-11 * $$ \times $$ ) and reconstructed using CD-DL and a parallel imaging and compressed sensing method (PICS). Measurements of peak velocity and total flow were compared to determine the highest acceleration rate that provided accuracy and precision within ± 5 % $$ \pm 5\% $$ . Feasibility of CD-DL was demonstrated on prospectively undersampled datasets acquired in pediatric clinical patients ( n = 5 $$ n=5 $$ ) and compared to traditional parallel imaging (PI) and PICS.RESULTS: The retrospective evaluation showed that 9 * $$ \times $$ accelerated 2D PC-MRI images reconstructed with CD-DL provided accuracy and precision (bias, [95 % $$ \% $$ confidence intervals]) within ± 5 % $$ \pm 5\% $$ . CD-DL showed higher accuracy and precision compared to PICS for measurements of peak velocity (2.8 % $$ \% $$ [ - 2 . 9 $$ -2.9 $$ , 4.5] vs. 3.9 % $$ \% $$ [ - 11 . 0 $$ -11.0 $$ , 4.9]) and total flow (1.8 % $$ \% $$ [ - 3 . 9 $$ -3.9 $$ , 3.4] vs. 2.9 % $$ \% $$ [ - 7 . 1 $$ -7.1 $$ , 6.9]). The prospective feasibility study showed that CD-DL provided higher accuracy and precision than PICS for measurements of peak velocity and total flow.CONCLUSION: In a retrospective evaluation, CD-DL produced quantitative measurements of 2D PC-MRI peak velocity and total flow with = 5 % $$ \le 5\% $$ error in both accuracy and precision for up to 9 * $$ \times $$ acceleration. Clinical feasibility was demonstrated using a prospective clinical deployment of our 8 * $$ \times $$ undersampled acquisition and CD-DL reconstruction in a cohort of pediatric patients.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.29441
View details for PubMedID 36093915