A variety of three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques and materials facilitate the creation of customized models that promise to improve surgical procedures and patient outcomes. Three-dimensional-printed models allow patients, trainees, and experienced surgeons to explore anatomy through direct visualization and tactile feedback. Although 3D-printed models serve a range of purposes including preoperative planning, education, skills refinement, patient-specific intraprocedural guides, and implants, much work remains to decrease the turnaround time and cost of printing models, collect long-term effectiveness data, and refine regulatory oversight of 3D printing in medicine.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.soc.2022.06.005
View details for PubMedID 36243500