Over the past decade, the emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors has brought about significant change to the treatment landscape of bladder cancer. Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor that has shown favorable results resulting in FDA approval for treatment of platinum-refractory locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. More recently, it was the first (and only) immune checkpoint inhibitor to receive FDA approval for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma in the adjuvant setting after radical surgery. Multiple trials are now actively underway to further understand the nuances in which immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab can be beneficial. In this review, we explore the development of nivolumab in terms of its mechanism of action, its growing indications in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma, and potential future directions for clinical trials.Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a promising treatment for bladder cancer, but further work is needed to continue to improve outcomes for patients.
View details for DOI 10.2147/OTT.S369043
View details for PubMedID 36275184