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BACKGROUND: Radiosurgical treatment of brain metastases is usually performed without brain tissue confirmation. While it is extremely rare for glioblastoma to develop concurrently in patients with brain metastases, they can look radiographically similar, and recognition is important because it alters management and prognosis. The synchronous presence of brain metastases and glioblastoma has not been published to date in the literature, making this a rare illustrative case.OBSERVATIONS: A 70-year-old female had lung biopsy-proven metastatic lung adenocarcinoma and multiple brain metastases. Her treatment course included initial carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab followed by maintenance nivolumab, and she underwent stereotactic radiosurgery to the multiple brain metastases. During interval radiological surveillance, one lesion in the right temporal lobe was noted to slowly progress associated with development of significant perilesional edema causing midline shift despite repeated stereotactic radiosurgical treatments. Biopsy of this lesion revealed glioblastoma, IDH wildtype.LESSONS: Glioblastomas and brain metastases have similar radiological features, so the possibility of incorrect diagnosis needs to be considered for all lesions with interval growth poststereotactic radiosurgery. Biopsy and/or resection/laser ablation should be considered prior to reirradiation.
View details for DOI 10.3171/CASE21714
View details for PubMedID 36273867