Conventional water-fat separation approaches suffer long computational times and are prone to water/fat swaps. To solve these problems, we propose a deep learning-based dual-echo water-fat separation method. With IRB approval, raw data from 68 pediatric clinically indicated dual echo scans were analyzed, corresponding to 19382 contrast-enhanced images. A densely connected hierarchical convolutional network was constructed, in which dual-echo images and corresponding echo times were used as input and water/fat images obtained using the projected power method were regarded as references. Models were trained and tested using knee images with 8-fold cross validation and validated on out-of-distribution data from the ankle, foot, and arm. Using the proposed method, the average computational time for a volumetric dataset with ~400 slices was reduced from 10 min to under one minute. High fidelity was achieved (correlation coefficient of 0.9969, l1 error of 0.0381, SSIM of 0.9740, pSNR of 58.6876) and water/fat swaps were mitigated. I is of particular interest that metal artifacts were substantially reduced, even when the training set contained no images with metallic implants. Using the models trained with only contrast-enhanced images, water/fat images were predicted from non-contrast-enhanced images with high fidelity. The proposed water-fat separation method has been demonstrated to be fast, robust, and has the added capability to compensate for metal artifacts.
View details for DOI 10.3390/bioengineering9100579
View details for PubMedID 36290546