Surgery, Liver Directed Therapy and Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Liver Metastases. Cancers Ngongoni, R., Visser, B. 2022; 14 (20)


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are described by the World Health Organization (WHO) classification by grade (1-3) and degree of differentiation. Grade 1 and 2; well differentiated PNETs are often characterized as relatively "indolent" tumors for which locoregional therapies have been shown to be effective for palliation of symptom control and prolongation of survival even in the setting of advanced disease. The treatment of liver metastases includes surgical and non-surgical modalities with varying degrees of invasiveness; efficacy; and risk. Most of these modalities have not been prospectively compared. This paper reviews literature that has been published on treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine liver metastases using surgery; liver directed embolization and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Surgery is associated with the longest survival in patients with resectable disease burden. Liver-directed (hepatic artery) therapies can sometimes convert patients with borderline disease into candidates for surgery. Among the three embolization modalities; the preponderance of data suggests chemoembolization offers superior radiographic response compared to bland embolization and radioembolization; but all have similar survival. PRRT was initially approved as salvage therapy in patients with advanced disease that was not amenable to resection or embolization; though the role of PRRT is evolving rapidly.

View details for DOI 10.3390/cancers14205103

View details for PubMedID 36291892