PURPOSE: To assess the performance of a machine learning model trained with contrast-enhanced CT-based radiomics features in distinguishing benign from malignant solid renal masses and to compare model performance with three abdominal radiologists.METHODS: Patients who underwent intra-operative ultrasound during a partial nephrectomy were identified within our institutional database, and those who had pre-operative contrast-enhanced CT examinations were selected. The renal masses were segmented from the CT images and radiomics features were derived from the segmentations. The pathology of each mass was identified; masses were labeled as either benign [oncocytoma or angiomyolipoma (AML)] or malignant [clear cell, papillary, or chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC)] depending on the pathology. The data were parsed into a 70/30 train/test split and a random forest machine learning model was developed to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. Three radiologists assessed the cohort of masses and labeled cases as benign or malignant.RESULTS: 148 masses were identified from the cohort, including 50 benign lesions (23 AMLs, 27 oncocytomas) and 98 malignant lesions (23 clear cell RCC, 44 papillary RCC, and 31 chromophobe RCCs). The machine learning algorithm yielded an overall accuracy of 0.82 for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.80. In comparison, the three radiologists had significantly lower accuracies (p=0.02) ranging from 0.67 to 0.75.CONCLUSION: A machine learning model trained with CT-based radiomics features can provide superior accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant solid renal masses compared to abdominal radiologists.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00261-022-03735-7
View details for PubMedID 36370180