Measurable residual disease (MRD) is the most powerful independent predictor of risk of relapse and long-term survival in adults and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). For almost all patients with ALL there is a reliable method to evaluate MRD, which can be done using multi-color flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect specific fusion transcripts or immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor gene rearrangements, and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. While next-generation sequencing-based MRD detection has been increasingly utilized in clinical practice due to its high sensitivity, the clinical significance of very low MRD levels (<10-4) is not fully characterized. Several new immunotherapy approaches including blinatumomab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies have demonstrated efficacy in eradicating MRD in patients with B-ALL. However, new approaches to target MRD in patients with T-ALL remain an unmet need. As our MRD detection assays become more sensitive and expanding novel therapeutics enter clinical development, the future of ALL therapy will increasingly utilize MRD as a criterion to either intensify or modify therapy to prevent relapse or de-escalate therapy to reduce treatment-related morbidity and mortality.
View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2022.280638
View details for PubMedID 36453516