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Both primary lung adenocarcinoma and benign processes can have a ground-glass opacity (GGO) appearance on imaging. This study evaluated the incidence of and risk factors for malignancy in a diverse cohort of patients who underwent resection of a GGO suspicious for lung cancer.All patients who underwent resection of a pulmonary nodule with a GGO component and suspected to be primary lung cancer at a single institution from 2001-2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Risk factors for malignancy were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression analysis that included nodule size, age, sex, and race as potential predictors.The incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in the 243 patients who met inclusion criteria was 86% (n=208). The most common pathologic findings in 35 patients with a benign pathology was granulomatous inflammation (n=14, 40%). Risk factors for adenocarcinoma in multivariable logistic regression were age [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, P=0.003], GGO size (OR 2.76, P<0.001), female sex (OR 4.47, P=0.002), and Asian race (OR 8.35, P=0.002). In this cohort, adenocarcinoma was found in 100% (44/44) of Asian females, 86% (25/29) of Asian males, 84% (98/117) of non-Asian females, and 77% (41/53) of non-Asian males.The likelihood of adenocarcinoma in lung nodules with a ground-glass component is influenced by sex and race. Asian females with a GGO have a much higher likelihood of having adenocarcinoma than men and non-Asians. This data can be used when deciding whether to pursue nodule resection or surveillance in a patient with a GGO.
View details for DOI 10.21037/jtd-22-583
View details for PubMedID 36524073
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9745528