Most relapsed/refractory large B cell lymphoma (r/rLBCL) patients receiving anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR19) T cells relapse. To characterize determinants of resistance, we profiled over 700 longitudinal specimens from two independent cohorts (n = 65 and n = 73) of r/rLBCL patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel. A method for simultaneous profiling of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), cell-free CAR19 (cfCAR19) retroviral fragments, and cell-free T cell receptor rearrangements (cfTCR) enabled integration of tumor and both engineered and non-engineered T cell effector-mediated factors for assessing treatment failure and predicting outcomes. Alterations in multiple classes of genes are associated with resistance, including B cell identity (PAX5 and IRF8), immune checkpoints (CD274), and those affecting the microenvironment (TMEM30A). Somatic tumor alterations affect CAR19 therapy at multiple levels, including CAR19 T cell expansion, persistence, and tumor microenvironment. Further, CAR19 T cells play a reciprocal role in shaping tumor genotype and phenotype. We envision these findings will facilitate improved chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and personalized therapeutic approaches.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccell.2022.12.005
View details for PubMedID 36584673