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Pharmacist- and Nurse-Led Medical Optimization in Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of cardiac failure Zheng, J., Mednick, T., Heidenreich, P. A., Sandhu, A. T. 2023


Traditional approaches to guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) management often lead to delayed initiation and titration of therapies in heart failure. This study sought to characterize alternative models of care involving non-physician provider-led GDMT interventions and their associations with therapy utilization and clinical outcomes.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies comparing non-physician provider-led GDMT initiation and/or uptitration interventions versus usual physician care (PROSPERO ID: CRD42022334661). We queried PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registry Platform for peer-reviewed studies from database inception to July 31, 2022. In the meta-analysis, we used RCT data only and leveraged random-effects models to estimate pooled outcomes. Primary outcomes were GDMT initiation and titration to target doses by therapeutic class. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality and HF hospitalizations.33 studies were reviewed, of which 17 (52%) were randomized controlled trials with median follow-up of 6 months. 14 (82%) trials evaluated nurse interventions, while the remainder assessed pharmacist interventions. The primary analysis pooled data from 16 RCTs, which enrolled 5,268 patients. Pooled risk ratios (RR) for RASI and BB initiation were 2.09 (95% CI 1.05-4.16; I2=68%) and 1.91 (95% CI 1.35-2.70; I2=37%), respectively. Outcomes were similar for uptitration of RASI (RR 1.99, 95% CI 1.24-3.20; I2=77%) and BB (RR 2.22, 95% CI 1.29-3.83; I2=66%). No association was found with MRA initiation (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.47-2.19). There were lower rates of mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67-1.04; I2=12%) and HF hospitalization (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.63-1.01; I2=25%) across intervention arms, but these differences were small and not statistically significant. Prediction intervals were wide due to moderate-to-high heterogeneity across trial populations and interventions. Subgroup analyses by provider type did not show significant effect modification.Pharmacist- and nurse-led interventions for GDMT initiation and/or uptitration improved guideline concordance. Further research evaluating newer therapies and titration strategies integrated with pharmacist- and/or nurse-based care may be valuable.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2023.03.012

View details for PubMedID 37004867