The Shinnar-Le-Roux (SLR) algorithm is widely used to design frequency selective pulses with large flip angles. We improve its design process to generate pulses with lower energy (by as much as 26%) and more accurate phase profiles. Concretely, the SLR algorithm consists of two steps: (1) an invertible transform between frequency selective pulses and polynomial pairs that represent Cayley-Klein (CK) parameters and (2) the design of the CK polynomial pair to match the desired magnetization profiles. Because the CK polynomial pair is bi-linearly coupled, the original algorithm sequentially solves for each polynomial instead of jointly. This results in sub-optimal pulses. Instead, we leverage a convex relaxation technique, commonly used for low rank matrix recovery, to address the bilinearity. Our numerical experiments show that the resulting pulses are almost always globally optimal in practice. For slice excitation, the proposed algorithm results in more accurate linear phase profiles. And in general the improved pulses have lower energy than the original SLR pulses.
View details for DOI 10.1109/TMI.2022.3231782
View details for PubMedID 37015710