Episodic memory deficits occur in people living with HIV (PLWH) and individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Given known effects of HIV and PD on frontolimbic systems, episodic memory deficits are often attributed to executive dysfunction. Although executive dysfunction, evidenced as retrieval deficits, is relevant to mnemonic deficits, learning deficits may also contribute. Here, the California Verbal Learning Test-II, administered to 42 PLWH, 41 PD participants, and 37 controls, assessed learning and retrieval using measures of free recall, cued recall, and recognition. Executive function was assessed with a composite score comprising Stroop Color-Word Reading and Backward Digit Spans. Neurostructural correlates were examined with MRI of frontal (precentral, superior, orbital, middle, inferior, supplemental motor, medial) and limbic (hippocampus, thalamus) volumes. HIV and PD groups were impaired relative to controls on learning and free and cued recall trials but did not differ on recognition or retention of learned material. In no case did executive functioning solely account for the observed mnemonic deficits or brain-performance relations. Critically, the shared learning and retrieval deficits in HIV and PD were related to different substrates of frontolimbic mnemonic neurocircuitry. Specifically, diminished learning and poorer free and cued recall were related to smaller orbitofrontal volume in PLWH but not PD, whereas diminished learning in PD but not PLWH was related to smaller frontal superior volume. In PD, poorer recognition correlated with smaller thalamic volume and poorer retention to hippocampal volume. Although memory deficits were similar, the neural correlates in HIV and PD suggest different pathogenic mechanisms.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00429-023-02626-x
View details for PubMedID 37069296
View details for PubMedCentralID 9804536